What is Columbia's national anthem and who wrote it?

Colombia's national anthem is - rather boringly - officially called 'National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia' (Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia). However it is unofficially known as 'Oh Gloria Inmarcesible!' meaning 'O Unfading Glory!'.

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The anthem started life as a poem written by future President Rafael Núñez in 1850 as an ode to celebrate the independence of Cartagena (Colombia's first city to escape from Spanish rule).

In 1887 Núñez tweaked the lyrics again, while Italian-born opera musician Oreste Síndici, set it to music before it was presented to the public for the first time.

Thanks to its popularity t was made the official national anthem of Colombia in 1920.

'Colombia's national anthem' ('Oh Gloria Inmarcesible!') lyrics

'Colombia's national anthem' lyrics in English

Chorus:
Oh, unwithering glory!
Oh, immortal jubilance!
In furrows of pain,
goodness now germinates. ????

Oh, unwithering glory!
Oh, immortal jubilance!
In furrows of pain,
goodness now germinates.

I
The horrible night has ceased.
Sublime Liberty
spills the auroras
of her invincible light.

The entirety of humanity
that groans within chains,
comprehend the words
of He who died on the cross.

Chorus

II
"Independence!" shouts
the American world;
The land of Columbus.
Is bathed in heroes' blood.

But this great doctrine;
"The king is not sovereign",
resounds, and those who suffer
bless their passion.

Chorus

III
The bed of the Orinoco
Is heaped with plunder,
Of blood and tears a river
is seen to flow there.

In Bárbula know
neither souls nor eyes,
whether admiration to feel
or fear to suffer.

Chorus

IV
On the shores of the Caribbean,
a famished people fight,
preferring horror
to fickle health.

O, aye! from Cartagena
heavy is the hardship,
and death's rubble
disdains her virtue

Chorus

V
From Boyacá in the fields,
the genius of glory,
from every sprig a hero
was crowned undefeated.

Soldiers without armor
won the victory;
their virile spirit
served them as a shield.

Chorus

VI
Bolívar crosses the Andes
bathed by two oceans,
swords as though sparks
flash in Junín.

Indomitable centaurs
descend to the plains,
and a premonition begins to be felt,
of the epic's end.

Chorus

VII
The victorious trumpet
in Ayacucho loudly thunders,
as in every triumph grows
its formidable sound.

In its expansive thrust
Liberty is first felt,
from the American sky
forming a pavilion.

Chorus

VIII
In agony, the Virgin
Tears out her hair,
and bereft of her love,
leaves it to hang on a cypress.

Regretting her hope
covered by a cold headstone,
but glorious pride
hallows her fair skin.

Chorus

IX
Thus the motherland is formed,
Thermopylaes bursting forth;
a constellation of cyclops
the night did brighten.

The trembling flower
finding the wind mortal,
underneath the laurels
safety sought.

Chorus

X
But it's not complete glory
to defeat in battle,
the arm that fights
is encouraged by truth.

For independence alone
The great clamour doesn't silence;
if the sun shines on everyone,
justice is liberty.

Chorus

XI
Of men the rights
Nariño's preaching,
the soul of struggle
was prophetically taught.

Ricaurte in San Mateo,
in atoms flying,
"Duty before life,"
with flames he wrote.

Chorus

'Colombia's national anthem' ('O, gloria inmarcesible!') lyrics in Spanish

Coro:
O, gloria inmarcesible!
O, júbilo inmortal!
En surcos de dolores,
el bien germina ya. ????

O, gloria inmarcesible!
O, júbilo inmortal!
En surcos de dolores,
el bien germina ya.

I
Cesó la horrible noche.
La libertad sublime
derrama las auroras
de su invencible luz.

La humanidad entera,
que entre cadenas gime,
comprende las palabras
del que murió en La Cruz.

Coro

II
"¡Independencia!", grita
el mundo americano.
Se baña en sangre de héroes
la tierra de Colón.

Pero este gran principio;
"El rey no es soberano"[c]
resuena, y los que sufren
bendicen su pasión.

Coro

III
Del Orinoco el cauce
se colma de despojos,
de sangre y llanto un río
se mira allí correr.

En Bárbula no saben
las almas ni los ojos,
si admiración o espanto
sentir o padecer.

Coro

IV
A orillas del Caribe,
hambriento un pueblo lucha,
horrores prefiriendo
a pérfida salud.

¡Oh, sí!, de Cartagena
la abnegación es mucha,
y escombros de la muerte
desprecia su virtud.

Coro

V
De Boyacá en los campos,
el genio de la gloria,
con cada espiga un héroe
invicto coronó.

Soldados sin coraza
ganaron la victoria;
su varonil aliento
de escudo les sirvió.

Coro

VI
Bolívar cruza el Ande
que riegan dos océanos,
espadas cual centellas
fulguran en Junín.

Centauros indomables
descienden a los llanos,
y empieza a presentirse,
de la epopeya el fin.

Coro

VII
La trompa victoriosa
en Ayacucho truena,
que en cada triunfo crece
su formidable son.

En su expansivo empuje
la libertad se estrena,
del cielo americano
formando un pabellón.

Coro

VIII
La virgen sus cabellos
arranca en agonía
y de su amor viuda
los cuelga del ciprés.

Lamenta su esperanza
que cubre loza fría,
pero glorioso orgullo
circunda su alba tez.

Coro

IX
La patria así se forma,
termópilas brotando;
constelación de cíclopes
su noche iluminó.

La flor estremecida
mortal el viento hallando,
debajo los laureles
seguridad buscó.

Coro

X
Mas no es completa gloria
vencer en la batalla,
que el brazo que combate
lo anima la verdad.

La independencia sola
el gran clamor no acalla;
si el sol alumbra a todos,
justicia es libertad.

Coro

XI
Del hombre los derechos
Nariño predicando,
el alma de la lucha
profético enseñó.

Ricaurte en San Mateo,
en átomos volando,
"Deber antes que vida,"
con llamas escribió.

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Coro