Karl Alois, Prince Lichnowsky (1761-1814)
One of the composer’s major patrons, described by him as ‘one of my most loyal friends’.
Antonie Brentano (1780-1869)
Long-term companion, dedicatee of Beethoven’s Diabelli Variations and, perhaps, the addressee of his ‘Immortal Beloved’ letter.
Stephan van Breuning (1774-1827)
Civil servant, lifelong friend – first in Bonn and then Vienna – and a steady presence in Beethoven’s life. Dedicatee of the Violin Concerto.
Giovanni Malfatti (1775-1859)
This esteemed doctor, for whom Beethoven wrote the cantata Un lieto brindisi, was one of the few medics he trusted. They fell out in 1817.
Josephine Brunsvik (1779-1821)
Beethoven’s piano pupil and, after her husband Joseph died, increasingly the target of his affection.
Ferdinand Ries (1784-1838)
Studied composition with Beethoven and assisted him as copyist, secretary and general companion.
Archduke Rudolf of Austria (1788-1831)
Piano pupil and patron, his friendship with Beethoven was marked by the dedication of works including the Archduke Trio and Emperor Concerto.
Anselm Hüttenbrenner (1794-1868)
The composer and pianist was one of only two people present at Beethoven side when he died.
Anton Schindler (1795-1864)
Beethoven’s secretary from 1822-25 and first biographer. Some, including the composer himself, found him obsequious and over-protective.
Karl Holz (1798-1858)
The second violinist of Ignaz Schuppanzigh’s string quartet, Holz took over as assistant to Beethoven after Schindler’s departure.